Animal est substantia

Ed. E.C. Coppens


The Summa Animal est substantia - formerly known as the Summa Bambergensis - is a vast and very romanistic commentary on the Decretum of Gratian. This summa was first discovered in Bamberg (Staatsbibliothek, can. 42 [P. II. 15])(B), hence the name. In the meantime it has become known that there are three other manuscripts: in Liège (Bibliothèque de l’Université 127E, Cat. 499)(L), Echternach (now in Luxemburg Bibliothèque Nationale, BN 139)(E) and Bernkastel Kues (Nosocomium Sancti Nicolai - Sankt Nikolaus Spital, 223) (K). No autograph is left. All texts are copies of one or more originals, or copies of copies. The original was probably a text without Decretum. Ms. B and E have a largely defective text, ms. L and K are complete, be it that L is somewhat damaged. B has the form of a real summa, i.e. it has a text without the text of the Decretum; E, L and K are copies in the way of marginal glosses. In large parts of the summa, the text differs litterally, though not substantially. Consequently there is not one text, but mainly two different texts or in some parts even three litterally different texts. In spite of the name, the summa has been written in the university of Paris, between 1206 and 1216. See S. Kuttner, Repertorium der Kanonistik (1140-1234). Prodromus Corporis glossarum I, Città del Vaticano 1937, pp. 64-66 and 206-207; E.M. de Groot, Doctrina de iure naturali et positivo humano in summa Bambergensi (DD. 1-20), Nijmegen 1970; G. Fransen, Manuscrits de décrétistes dans les bibliothèques liégeoises, in: Studia Gratiana 1 (1953), pp. 291-302; A.M. Stickler, Ergänzungen zur Traditionsgeschichte der Dekretistik, 1. Zum Apparat ‘Animal est substantia’, in: Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law, 1 (1971), pp. 73-75; E.C. Coppens, Parijs en het (Romano?)Canoniek recht rond 1200, in: Id. (ed.), Secundum Ius. Opstellen aangeboden aan prof. mr. P.L. Nève, Nijmegen 2005, pp. 81-100; E.C. Coppens, Pierre Peverel, glossateur de droit romain et canoniste (?), in: E. de León and N. Álvarez de las Asturias, La Cultura giuridico-canonica medioevale. Premesse per un dialogo ecumenico, Milano 2003, pp. 303-394; E.C. Coppens, L’auteur d’Animal est substantia: une hypothèse, in: B. d’Alteroche (ed.), Mélanges en l’honneur d’Anne Lefebvre-Teillard, Paris 2009, pp. 289-298.

As B and K are qualitatively the best copies, I have chosen those two mss. as basic texts. Where two or more mss. go together the text will be black. In case one ms. has a separate or a parallel version, the text will be black (B), green (K), blue (E) or red (L).

References to Huguccio are to be found in ms. Paris BN Lat. 15.396 and 15.397.

This is only a preliminary publication. The texts will continuously be corrected and completed. Suggestions are always welcome.

The layout has been made on a Mac, using Mellel as a word program.